freedom and finding altogether different circumstances abroad they developad a spirit of nationalism. The thought of national emancipation inspired them and so they began to organise themselves. In California impetus towards organisation was given by Lala Hardyal. S. Sohan Singh Bhakna and his associates joined hands with Lala Hardyal and, on the 1st November, 1914, the Ghaddar Party was founded in San Francisco where delegates from all over the Western world were present. The Kamagata Maru episode of 1913 also proved helpful in the formation of the party.
The author has traced the growth of nationalism in India right from 1857 and in a methodical and convincing manner has established that but for the impetus given by the revolutionary movement Indian consciousness for 'Swaraj' or independence could not have been achieved by leaders like Mahatma Gandhi. This is something which Indian leaders, still under the spell of Congress non-violence have not appreciated so far.
In treating events the author has focussed attention not as much on personalities as on movements and courses of policy. This method may involve some loss of dramatic interest but has the merit of tracing clearly the main threads of history. The author has tried to make details as accurate and authentic as possible in the light of the latest researches and, where no definite conclusion seems possible, he has sought to indicate the different view-points. Jagjit Singh's book appears to be the result of pasient research and deep scholarship. It deserves to be widely known, particularly by serious students of history.
In recent times several young scholars have taken up history as their pursuit but they have not been able to break fresh ground... However, Jagjit Singh's 'Ghaddar Party da ithas' is uncommon in so far as it attempts to organise the historical material into a highly readable and lucid narrative and yet remains faithful to objective data.
The Sunday Tribune
Perhaps the earliest study of the Ghaddar movement was written in Punjabi, and based upon a combination of official records and personal